During the long history of Chinese civilization, many poets have left poems describing classical Chinese gardens .these poets are all attracted by the gardens .These gardens are more than buildings .Actually, they are parts of culture.
Gardens are built by the thought “the harmony between people and nature” in China, whose aesthetic standards are nature. Today, when you visit these gardens ,you will discover many buildings where you would love to stop to linger awhile. You can make a tour of the pond, you can stand by the balustrade and count the swimming fish, or you can sit veranda the shadows of flowers move along the walls, and looking out through a scene enchanting .You will cannot help felling:” Though made by man, these gardens look so natural” Chinese gardens, with their buildings, landscaping and different kind of flowers and trees, are integrated with work of arts. In the gardens, hills are valued for their veins and waters for sources, and if these are properly set out ,the whole garden will come to life. “The water follows the hills, and the hills are brought to life by water.”
Royal gardens, temple gardens and private gardens are three major gardens schools of thought .Because of society, economy ,environment and some other elements, most of the royal gardens are located in Northern China; Temple gardens are located in famous mountains and great rivers; private gardens mostly in the South of the River and South of the Five Ridges. Northern gardens’ characters are grand and magnificent; gardens in the south of Five Ridges stress on nature; gardens in the south River stress on elegant, nature and exquisite.
Clumsy Political Garden, Linger Park, Green Pavilion, the Summer Palace, Chengde summer Resort, all these gardens are quite famous(both at home and abroad). They almost stand for Chinese gardens. So if you have a chance, you really should set out to the beauty of Chinese gardens.
The Chinese scholars garden was built by and for the scholar class of civil servants. They first appeared during the early imperial era, and developed into high art by the Song Dynasty. The original impetus was a strict class division that caused careerist officials to give up hope of advancement in the civil service and retreat into a more contemplative life. Culturally, this class of people was under immense Confucian pressure in their publics and so sought a more carefree Daoist existence in their private lives. The design of a garden drew on such diverse fields as fengshui, botany, hydraulics, history, literature, and architecture. The task was considered so complex that only a scholar was capable of completing it, thus his garden was a measure of his knowledge. For the same reason poetry was a primary part of the garden design, as knowledge and composition of poetry served as an intelligence test for the scholar class. The garden served multiple functions as semi-public extension of the house and a place; of retreat, for festivity, for study of poetry, for romance. The social and cultural importance of the garden is attested in Chinese literature, particularly the classic Novel Dream of the Red Chamber which unfolds almost exclusively in a garden.
West Lake : Yue Fei Memorial Hall
Architecture is the primary element of design. The garden scenes are all constructed to be best viewed from a pavilion. A more dynamic although inferior scene may be scene from a path. It is the location of the building; however, that determines the circulation of paths. The path itself can become architectonic by the the addition of roof and screen walls. These screen walls often have have moon-shaped doorways and small windows in the shapes of vases and apples.